It has been estimated that global agricultural production suffers an average annual loss of 15% due to plant diseases (Oerke, 2006; Lo Presti et al., 2015; Schwessinger et al., 2015).
The lifestyles of plant pathogenic fungi are highly diverse and utilize distinct strategies to interact with the host plant.
For example, necrotrophic fungi infect and kill host tissue and extract nutrients from dead host cells.
Biotrophic fungi colonize living host tissue and obtain nutrients from living tissue; whereas hemibiotrophic fungi display two phases during the infection process; first is an initial biotrophic phase followed by a necrotrophic stage (Lo Presti et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02261-6 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Gonzalez-Fernandez, R.
Pathogenic fungi have diverse growth lifestyles that support fungal colonization on plants. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05076.x Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Gout, L., Kuhn, M.
Successful colonization and infection for all lifestyles depends upon the ability to modify living host plants to sequester the necessary nutrients required for growth and reproduction. L., Vincenot, L., Bernard-Samain, S., Cattolico, L., Barbetti, M., et al. Genome structure impacts molecular evolution at the Avr Lm1 avirulence locus of the plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans.