ABSTRACT: Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality resulting in 745,000 deaths annually worldwide.
It is overwhelmingly manifest as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in middle-aged and older adults. Globally, most cases are related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and occur in sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Asia (except Japan).
S.) and largely parallel rapidly increasing rates of obesity and diabetes.
Striking geographic and racial variations in HCC risk are also evident and likely predominantly due to known differences in the prevalence of major risk factors like HBV and HCV infections.
Other established risk factors for HCC include older age, male sex, heavy alcohol intake, aflatoxin exposure, iron overload related to hemochromatosis, and possibly tobacco smoking.
At head of title: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer."Represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC ad-hoc Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 10-18 March 1987."Includes cumulative cross index to IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans.
Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity : an updating of IARC monographs, volumes 1 to 42./IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans.; International Agency for Research on Cancer.; [Lyon, France] : International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987.